Individuals with Down syndrome also tend to have a more alkaline saliva resulting in a greater resistance to tooth decaydespite decreased quantities of saliva,  less effective oral hygiene habits, and higher plaque indexes. This gene inactivation is accompanied by a more condensed structure of the chromatin and, consequently, the DNA of these genes is not accessible to the transcription factors. As a result, the phenotype will be complex and heterogeneous, depending on the origin of the second translocation chromosome. An error in cell division called nondisjunction results in a reproductive cell with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of chromosome
Different substances known as mutagens, co-mutagens, and teratogens have been investigated in detail.
These couples are usually recommended to a special IVF program for a further pregnancy, and preimplantation-testing procedures might be considered Stumm et al. J Genet Couns. Nature Reviews Genetics 6— doi: A chromosomal disorder that causes serious problems with the brain and heart as well as extra fingers and toes, cleft palate and lip, and other defects. Another genetic test called FISH can apply similar principles and confirm a diagnosis in a shorter amount of time.
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